Mining Regulations in India


Mining is an important sector in the Indian economy, providing important raw materials to several industries. To ensure responsible and sustainable mining practices, the Government of India has established a comprehensive regulatory framework. In this blog post, Shiba Minai from explores the various mining regulations in India, covering the basic operations, rules and practices of the industry.

Understanding these regulations is very important for mining companies, stakeholders and policymakers to promote environmental protection, community well-being and sustainable use of natural resources.

Mines and Minerals (Development and Regulation) Act, 1957

The Mines and Minerals (Development and Regulation) Act (MMDR Act) is the main piece of legislation that regulates mining in India.

The main topics of discussion are Grant of Mineral Concessions

Clarify provisions related to the issuance of mineral resource permits, lease renewals, and major and minor mineral resource auction processes.

Royalty and Contributions

Emphasize provisions related to royalties and payments to District Mineral Foundation (DMF) and National Mineral Exploration Trust (NMET) to ensure equitable distribution of mining revenues.

Illegal Mining and Enforcement

Discuss provisions to curb illegal mining, including the creation of special courts, penalties and the role of central and state agencies in enforcement.

Environmental Clearance and Consent Mechanisms Environmental regulations play a key role in ensuring sustainable mining.

The topics covered are:

  • Environmental Impact Assessment (EIA): Explain how to obtain environmental permits based on an EIA notice, including the requirement to conduct an environmental impact assessment and public hearings.
  • Consent to Operate: Discuss the requirement to obtain a permit from the State Pollution Control Boards (SPCBs) under the Water (Prevention and Control of Pollution) and Air (Prevention and Control of Pollution) Act.
  • Mine Closure and Reclamation: To highlight regulations related to mine closure planning, reclamation and post-mining land use as per MMDR Act and EIA notification.

Forest and Tribal Rights

Mining often intersects with forest areas and tribal communities. The topics to be investigated are:

  • Forest (Conservation) Act, 1980: Discuss the provisions relating to clearance and compensatory afforestation requirements for mining projects.
  • Scheduled Tribes and Other Traditional Forest Dwellers (Recognition of Forest Rights) Act, 2006: Clarify the provisions relating to the recognition and protection of the rights of tribal communities and forest dwellers, including their consent to mining on their ancestral lands.
  • Sustainable Mining and Social Welfare: Explores initiatives and policies aimed at promoting sustainable mining practices and ensuring social well-being.

Topics for discussion are

  • District Mineral Foundation (DMF): Explain the establishment and activities of DMF, which focuses on the welfare and development of communities affected by the use of mining revenues.
  • Corporate Social Responsibility (CSR): Emphasize the social responsibility responsibilities of mining companies, including promoting the well-being of local communities, infrastructure development and environmental protection.


India’s mining regulations aim to promote responsible and sustainable mining practices while ensuring the well-being of communities and the protection of the environment. Understanding the various laws, regulations and policies governing the industry is crucial for mining companies and stakeholders to meet legal requirements and promote sustainability. By following these rules, mining in India can achieve a balance between economic growth and environmental protection, ensure the well-being of local communities, and promote social well-being.

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